Diabetes mellitus is defined simply as a rise in blood glucose levels. The clinical manifestation, however, is much more complicated than its definition. Patients with chronic diabetes mellitus are frequently plagued by various complications, such as visual disturbances, prolonged delay in healing of wounds, frequent recurrence of infections, impotence, and others. Treatment of diabetes mellitus, therefore, must focus on treating both the cause and the symptoms simultaneously. Traditional Chinese Medicine Approach: Many herbs effectively treat both diabetes and its complications. For diabetes, herbs have shown marked effect to stimulate the endocrine system, increase production of insulin from the pancreas, and control blood glucose. Furthermore, many herbs are effective to alleviate symptoms of diabetes, such as thirst, hunger, frequent urination, and other manifestations of xiao ke (wasting and thirsting) syndrome. However, herbal therapy has its limitations. Because herbs work primarily by stimulating the pancreas to produce insulin, it is only effective for type II diabetes. Therefore, for type I diabetic patients, herbs should be used to manage complications, but not to treat diabetes itself.